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World Congress on Cardiology , will be organized around the theme “Use Heart to beat Cardiovascular diseases”

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There are numerous one-of-a-kind varieties of cardiac surgeries to be had to cure distinctive type of cardiac troubles a number of them are noted underneathOpen heart surgery


Heart failure can be brought on by many circumstances that damage the heart including: Coronary artery disease, this is a disease of the arteries that provide blood and oxygen to your heart. It decreases blood flow to our heart muscles. If the arteries slim or get blocked our heart will become starved for oxygen and nutrients and can't pump as good. Heart attack this could occur when a coronary artery is blocked all at once, which stops the flow of blood to our coronary heart muscle. Cardiomyopathy this is harm to our heart muscle tissue that may be as a result of artery or blood float troubles, infections, alcohol, drug abuse and other sicknesses or genetic issues can also carry it on. Make sure your health practitioner knows your circle of family’s health records and conditions that overwork the heart. Those consist of such things as high blood pressure, heart valve disease, thyroid disease, kidney disease, diabetes, or heart defects you've had since you were born. Coronary artery disease

Stages of Heart Failure:

Stage A: This is the period when you are at risk for heart failure. You may be in this stage if you have:

You may also be at risk if you have a history of:

  • Cardiotoxic drug therapy
  •  Alcohol abuse
  • Rheumatic fever
  • Family members with cardiomyopathy

Stage B: You're in this phase if you never had symptoms of heart failure but you're diagnosed with systolic left ventricular dysfunction, which means the left chamber of your heart doesn't pump well. You may be in this group if you had or have:

  • Heart attack
  • Valve disease
  • Cardiomyopathy

Stage C: You're in this phase if you have systolic heart failure along with symptoms such as:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Fatigue
  • Less ability to exercise

Stage D: You're in this phase if you have systolic heart failure and advanced symptoms after you get medical care.

Cardio-oncology is the intersection of coronary heart situations in patients who have been treated for cancer. It's far a developing area that targets to optimize the cardiovascular care obtained by using cancer patients before, all through and after chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy.


Cardiology is a branch of medicine that share out with diseases and abnormalities of the heart. The field also involve medical diagnosis and treatment of congenital heart defects, heart failure, coronary artery disease, valvular heart disease and electrophysiology. Physicians who particularize in this field of medicine are called cardiologists, a department of internal medicine. Pediatric cardiologists are pediatricians who specialize in cardiology. Physicians who specialize in cardiac surgery are called as cardiac surgeons, a department of general surgery.


Invasive cardiology uses open or minimally invasive surgery to identify electrical malformation or treat structural within the heart structure. When plaque clogs your arteries, it becomes hard for blood to flow normally. Angioplasty inserts a very small balloon into your clogged vein and pushes plaque against the walls, allowing for higher blood flow. Stenting is usually done in conjunction with angioplasty. A cardiac stent is a tiny metal coil which permanently holds a clogged vein open.


  • Angioplasty
  •  Stenting


Non-invasive cardiology recognizes heart problems with not using any fluids, needles or other instruments which are inserted into the body. Nuclear cardiology is a non-invasive study of cardiovascular abnormalities by means of various kinds of imaging which may use radioactive elements. Echocardiograph is the utilization of ultrasound waves to generate images of the heart and nearby structures in order to identify how good the heart pumps blood, infections, and structural abnormalities. Cardiac electrophysiology is the study and examining of the electrical currents which generate heartbeats. Stress tests normally involve exercise which is observed by our cardiologist. These exercises provide our cardiologist particulars about how our heart performs under physical stress. Heart monitors may also be called a Holter monitor or cardiac event recorder. Heart monitors are originally tape recorders for our heart electrical activity over a set amount of time. CT scans produce images which our cardiologist can inspect for heart disease and atherosclerosis.Echocardiography


Cardiac nursing is a nursing department that performs with long suffering persons who suffer from different conditions of the cardiovascular system. Cardiac nurses help treat conditions like unstable angina, cardiomyopathy, coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction and cardiac dysrhythmia under the guidance of a cardiologist.

Cardiac nurses work with postoperative care on a surgical unit, stress test evaluations, cardiac observing, vascular monitoring, and health judgements. Cardiac caregiver must have Basic Life Support and Advanced Cardiac Life Support certification. Also, cardiac nurses must acquire professional skills includes electrocardiogram monitoring, defibrillation, and medication administration by continuous intravenous drip.

Cardiac nurses work in many dissimilar environments, including coronary care units (CCU), cardiac catheterization, operating theatres, intensive care units (ICU), clinical research, cardiac rehabilitation centres, cardiac surgery wards, cardiovascular intensive care units (CVICU), and cardiac medical wards.


Obesity has number of consequences on the cardiovascular system. Chronic accumulation of extra body fat leads to a variety of metabolic changes, increasing the generality of CVD risk factors but also affecting systems modulating inflammation. Obesity develops alterations in other intermediate risk factors like dyslipidemia, HTN, glucose intolerance, inflammatory state, obstructive sleep apnea/hypoventilation, and a prothrombotic state, as well as probably many additional unknown mechanisms. Obesity also induces a different structural adaptations/alterations in CV structure/function.  Being obese can increase blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, lower "good" HDL cholesterol. HDL cholesterol is attached with lower heart disease and stroke risk, so low LDL leads to raise the risk increase blood pressure and diabetes. In few people, diabetes makes other risk factors much worse. The danger of heart stroke is especially more for these peopleCorrelation of obesity and heart:

  • Obesity and hypertension

  • Obesity and coronary heart disease

  • Obesity and heart failure

  • Obesity and atrial fibrillation

  • Obesity and stoke

  • Obesity and ventricular arrhythmias

  • Obesity and sleep apnea

  • Obesity and venous disease


Interventional cardiology is a non-surgical alternative which uses a catheter flexible tube to restore weakened vessels or damaged, narrowed arteries, or other pretentious parts of the heart structure. Heart valve disease arises when the valves which control blood flow into the heart chambers are not functioning correctly. In Peripheral vascular disease heart can also be pretentious by clogged or hardened arteries and veins in other parts of our body. Angioplasty is an intervention to dilate both arteries and veins. Coronary angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention is an intervention for the therapy of coronary artery disease. It can be complete revascularization or culprit-vessel revascularization only. Valvuloplasty, it is the dilation of tapered cardiac valves (usually aortic, mitral or pulmonary). Percutaneous detains can be employed to correct atrial septal and ventricular septal defects, closure of a patient ductus arteriosus, and angioplasty of the great vessels. Percutaneous valve replacement is an alternative to open heart surgery, percutaneous valve replacement is the replacement of a heart valve using percutaneous methods. This is performed on the aortic valve, pulmonary valve and newly the mitral valve. Percutaneous valve repair is performed on the mitral valve using the Mitra Clip system or MONARC system. Coronary thrombectomy requires the removal of a thrombus from the coronary arteries.


Cardiovascular disease is a class of diseases that require the heart or blood vessels. Cardiovascular disease includes coronary artery diseases like angina and myocardial infarction known as Heart attack. Other CVDs include Stroke

  • Heart failure
  • Hypertensive heart disease
  • Rheumatic heart disease
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Heart arrhythmia
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Valvular heart disease
  • Carditis
  • Aortic aneurysms
  • Peripheral artery disease
  • Thromboembolic disease
  • Venous thrombosis.

Pediatric Cardiologists care for sufferers with congenital or obtained cardiac and cardiovascular malformation. The scope of pediatric cardiology exercise is massive. Pediatric Cardiologists estimate and care for fetuses, toddlers, neonates, youngsters, teens, teenagers, and adults.

Special areas of instructional and clinical interest include: Intensive Cardiac Care, Cardiac Catheterization and Intervention, Electrophysiology, Fetal Cardiology, Imaging, Preventive Cardiology, workout physiology, heart Failure and transplantation, and Pulmonary hypertensioncardiovascular diseases seen in paediatrics are as follows :

  • Aortic senosis
  • Arrhythmias
  • Atrial sptic defect
  • Cardiac failure
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Coarctation of aorta
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Endocardial cushion defect
  • Kawasaki disease
  • Pulmonary atresia and pulmonary stenosis
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Rheumatic heart disease
  • Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection
  • Transposition of great arteries
  • Tricus arteriosus
  • Ventricular septal defect


A physician may additionally advocate cardiac imaging to aid a prognosis of a coronary heart situation. scientific speciality expert businesses discourage the usage of ordinary cardiac imaging during pre-operative evaluation for patients approximately to undergo low or mid-risk non-cardiac surgical treatment because the method carries risks and is not going to result in the change of a patient management. pressure cardiac imaging is discouraged within the assessment of patients without cardiac signs and symptoms or in routine observe-ups.Magnetic resonance


Pregnancy increases the risk of new-onset SVT. This risk is more in pregnant patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. In the absence of structural heart disease, AF and atrial flutter are rare during pregnancy. Non-sustained ventricular arrhythmias takes place in up to 50% of pregnant women, but the clinical risk of sustained ventricular arrhythmia in the absence of structural heart disease is low.

Most antiarrhythmic drugs are divided as category C drugs while pregnancy by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) .Therefore, drug therapy should be used only in patients who have life-threatening arrhythmias or debilitating symptoms. Most β-blockers are classified as category C drugs by the FDA; however, atenolol is classified as a category D drug because it has been implicated in intrauterine growth retardation, and sotalol, pindolol, and acebutolol are classified as category B drugs. The other class C drugs include digoxin, adenosine and heparin, whereas lidocaine and enoxaparin are class B drugs. Enoxaparin is safe for the fetus, but some formulations contain the preservative benzyl alcohol, which can be harmful. Amiodarone is taken as category D drug, and warfarin (category X) should not be used at all during pregnancy because of its teratogenicity.


Even when glucose levels are under control it substantially grow the risk of heart disease and stroke. That's because people with diabetes, especially type 2 diabetes, may have the following circumstances that contribute to their risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Glycemic control


Numerous prominent electrophysiological variations have been noted between the sexes. By 5 years of age, girls have a higher heart rate than do boys, which might be explained by a shorter sinus node refractory time. The shorter QT interval in men is cited for the duration of puberty, as intercourse hormone degrees upward push. The length of the QT interval in men increases linearly through adulthood until the age of 50, when it becomes similar to that of women, which correlates with the decrease in androgen levels. Furthermore, QRS amplitude and duration are greater in men, consequent to a higher cardiac mass and thicker left ventricular walls Effects of Sex Hormones

  • Atrial Fibrillation


Critical cardiac care which is also called coronary care unit is a sanatorium ward specialized inside the care of patients with heart attacks, risky angina, cardiac dysrhythmia and  diverse different cardiac conditions that require non-stop tracking and treatment or first aid treatment until the health practitioner comes. There also are gadgets available in the hospitals to attend to the emergency state of affairs. The Cardiac intensive care unit(CICU) is a specialized ICU dealing with cardiac patients and is normally staffed via cardiologists. It gives critical care workforce mainly skilled in acute coronary syndromes and has additional technology like intra-aortic balloon pumps and so forth.Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

Atherosclerosis is a disease wherein the interior of an artery narrows due to the increase of plaque. to begin with, there are normally no symptoms. whilst severe, it may result in coronary artery disorder, stroke, peripheral artery disease, or kidney problems relying on the arteries which might be affected. Symptoms, if they occur  typically do no longer start till center age


  • Diabetes
  • Dyslipidaemia
  • Tobacco smoking
  • Trans fat
  • Abdominal obesity
  • Western pattern diet
  • Insulin resistance
  • Hypertension

Non modifiable:

  • Advanced age
  • Family history
  • Genetic abnormalities

The form of artery affected and wherein the plaque develops varies with anybody. Plaque may additionally partially or definitely block blood glide through a massive or medium-sized artery within the coronary heart, mind, pelvis, legs, palms or kidneys. while this takes place, numerous sicknesses may also result. These include:

  • Coronary heart disease 
  • Angina 
  • Carotid artery disease
  • Peripheral artery disease 
  • Chronic kidney disease.


Congenital heart defect is also called as a congenital heart disease or congenital heart anomaly, is a issue in the structure of the heart that is present at birth. Signs and symptoms depend on the specific type of issue. Symptoms can differ from none to life-threatening. When present they may include bluish skin, rapid breathing, poor weight gain, and feeling tired. It does not cause chest ache. Most congenital heart issues do not occur with other diseases. Problems that can result from heart defects also include heart failure.

Cause of a congenital heart defect is frequently unknown. Certain cases may be due to infections while pregnancy such as rubella, use of certain medicaments or drugs like alcohol or tobacco, parents being closely related, or poor nutritional status or obesity in the mother. Having a parent including a congenital heart defect is a risk factor. Number of genetic conditions are connected with heart defects including Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and Marfan syndrome. Congenital heart defects are classified into two main groups: cyanotic heart defects and non-cyanotic heart defects, depending on whether the child has the potential to turn bluish in color. The problems involve the interior walls of the heart, the heart valves, or the large blood vessels that tend to and from the heart.Hypoplasia

  • Obstruction defects
  • Septal defects
  • Cyanotic defects


There are few non pharmacotherapies are available to prevent and to control heart diseases. These non-pharmacotherapies can be developed along with pharmacotherapy.


These are different class of drugs which are used to treat cardiac diseases and even to prevent occurrence of cardiac failure

  • ACE inhibitors: These medications stop stress hormones and relieve stress on the heart pumping action. They increase symptoms and reduce hospitalizations for patients with heart failure.
  • Antiarrhythmics: These control irregular heartbeats — and maintain a normal heart rate and rhythm.
  • Anticoagulants and platelet inhibitors: These cause your blood to take longer to clot, which can decrease the risk of strokes and heart attacks that can occur when blood clots get plunge in small blood vessels.
  • Antihypertensives: These are commonly used to treat high blood pressure by relaxing and widening blood vessels.
  • Beta blockers: These medications are frequently prescribed to treat angina, high blood pressure, and abnormal heart rhythms. They stop stress hormones and relieve stress on the heart’s pumping movement . Relax the blood vessels so blood can move with more ease. Improve the heart’s function . Decrease symptoms and lessen the chance of future hospitalizations
  • Calcium channel blockers: These are mostly used to treat high blood pressure, coronary artery spasms, and angina. They stop the normal flow of calcium into the cells of the heart and blood vessels, which discourages smaller vessels from narrowing and going into spasm, and also decreases the heart’s workload and need for oxygen.
  • Digitalis glycosides: These strengthen the heart muscle, treat irregular heart rhythms, and improve exercise tolerance.
  • Diuretics: These helps in getting rid of our body excess fluid and salt. They are often prescribed for high blood pressure and congestive heart failure.
  • Lipid medications: The medications in this set work in different ways depending on which one you’re taking, lipid medications can decrease your levels of cholesterol, LDL, and triglycerides — as well as treat unusual low levels of HDL cholesterol.
  • Nitrates and other antianginals : These are usually used to prevent, reduce, or relieve angina pain. They perform by relaxing blood vessels and increasing the distribution of blood and oxygen to the heart — while decreasing the blood pressure that your heart has to pump against.


Cardiology conferences contains the current research in cardiology comprises the new innovative methods that are coming in cardiology related field.Statin therapy

  • Thrombolytic therapy
  • Cardiac rehabilitation
  • 3-D imaging
  • Wearable technologies
  • Wireless technologies and biosensors 
  • Percutaneous mitral valve repair devices
  • 3-D bioprinting